Week #14: Women’s Struggles and Successes

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Gender equality is something that is very important to a society, as no one should be seen as less-than because of his or her gender. Even in very developed countries the inequality that is seen is too much even if it is light years ahead of developing countries especially in Africa. “In some countries, women are still not equal in law. Even where they are legally equal to men, it is common for decisions to be taken by male heads of households or male local chiefs and leaders.”(Our Africa). Shows that more needs to be done to change hundreds of years of women’s oppression. One of the first and most important steps to gaining equality for women is legally making them equal. If there is a legal precedent in place to protect women’s rights then the country is on the right path. Even if there is not a immediate change there will be change over time as past cultural norms are now slowly being eroded by having a legal protection for women. Even in country’s that now make it illegal to prevent girls from going to school the rates of girls dropping out is much higher than boys. One reason is family’s do not see any value in educating their daughters as they will end up doing domestic work throughout their lives and education will slow them from learning these skills. Also girls in Africa are married off at a very young age and their new husband does not find it necessary to send their new wives to work. This has helped some girls whose families are financially stable and willing to spend the money on their daughters helping them rise above their current standing. An important policy that could have a big impact would be to have governments stop charging a fee on education to make it available to everyone and to require every child to go to school until they have completed primary education. If this was put in place it would immediately have a positive effect educating the public and it would also change options on girls duty and worth if they had to go to school. Changing people long held opinions on girls place in the world and their value is the most important struggle to insure girl’s rights are taken care of.

Economic opportunity is important to getting women equality because they would be able to take care of themselves and not be dependent on a caregiver. With this independence women can show others struggling and hire other women to help advance as many women as possible. “Women’s ability to participate in the labor market is constrained by their higher allocation of time to unpaid work. On average, women spend twice as much time on household work as men and four times as much time on childcare (Duflo, 2012), thereby freeing up time for male household members to participate in the formal labor force.”(IMF). Women need to break the stereotype that they can only be proficient at certain types of work, mainly unpaid housework. When women are realize their full economic potential they change the cycle of oppression as they teach their sons and daughters the value of women and show them with the right tools they can too be successful business owners and workers. If this new generation can be taught the value of women in the word they will help the country rise out of poverty. Like in the video when the women were able to get help to get the equipment to effectively produce and mill products if helped the whole community. With the extra profits of the grain they were able to buy a goat for every member involved. The beauty of giving women help with a business idea is it will not only help that one woman but possibly hundreds more as she will employ other women creating a whole society of women who are economically stable and successful.

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Week #13 Empowering Women & Violence

Girls' education report

Giving a population access to education and knowledge is one of the most powerful tools to uplift a society. In many African nations the focus has primarily been on making sure the men in their societies had some sort of education, while expecting women to go uneducated. They expect the women to preform traditionally domestic roles in their culture, which does not put an emphasis on women’s education. This practice needs to change if Africa truly wants to uplift itself out of poverty, only with the empowering of women will these African nations stand a chance to succeed. With increases in women’s education the birthrate and use of contraceptives will increase as a result of women being more causes then men when they are able to have freedom to choose a partner and the knowledge to know how to prevent pregnancy and decrease the chance of STDs. “More highly educated girls and women are better able to negotiate safer sex. An increasing number of studies show that this may be having a real impact on HIV rates.” (Girl Power). Educating women will have a very real and immediate impact on HIV rates as a result of women being empowered to make their own decisions. One way governments can have a very large impact on the rate of children enrolled in school is to eliminate the school fee. This allows the poorest of people the ability to give their children an education they would otherwise be unable to afford. The elimination of school fees is a good first step towards the direction of a more empowered and educated women population.NobelPeacePriceimage

Namibia is a country that is trying to protect its women and children by passing laws that explicitly guarantee them rights such as basic food, health care and education. One law Namibia passed “defines rape in broad terms and allows for the prosecution of spousal rape. Numerous cases of rape were prosecuted during the year, and the government generally enforced rape penalties, which provide for sentences of between five and 45 years’ imprisonment”(State Gov). Protecting women who may have been forced into marriage, from having sex with their husbands. Although laws do exists against workplace discrimination it is still rare to see a women in management positions. Namibia is ahead of many countries in Africa in terms of women’s rights but still has room for improvement to truly have equality and empowerment in the nation.

 

The high prevalence of abuses towards women in Africa including HIV, sexual violence, child rape, child trafficking among others is appallingly high. In too many of these countries women are not seen as equal counterparts to men but a sub category of human. This mindset needs to change to stop to curb the rampit abuses women face. In places such as South Africa and Namibia they struggle with child rape and while many ignore the problem some are looking at solutions. One of the biggest preventers of child rape this studies “findings suggest that prevention of child rape is linked to improvements in the social position of women and girls, and the struggle for the recognition of women’s rights”(Jewkes). The role education of women and children in these African nations is vital to uplifting these nations out of poverty but also to help eliminate social atrocities. Nigeria is one nation that has had issues with its women’s rights where many do not value women as much as men in the culture. In the news of late has been the abduction of over 200 girls from a school in northeastern Nigeria. Although “No one has admitted carrying out the mass kidnapping, although it is assumed to be the work of Boko Haram, the al-Qaida-linked jihadi group. Amnesty International says 1,500 people have been killed this year in the conflict between Boko Haram and Nigerian security forces”(Guardian). Showing the ability of these groups to pull of large-scale kidnappings is not a good sign for Nigeria and its record on women’s rights. Not only did the kidnapping of 200 girls take place they to a large extent still remain missing. With the long standing Islamic traditions of the area and a dislike for western influence groups like Boko Haram will continue to fight against the advancement of women and western ideals. For these groups to stop the Nigerian government as well as outside groups need to make sure these areas are secure for women and girls to continue to get the education they need without fear of abduction.

Wood, K. et al. (1998). He forced me to love him.

Jewkes, R. et al. (2005). “If they rape me, I can’t blame them.”

Sehll-Duncan, B. and Hernlund, Y. (no date). Female ‘circumcision” in Africa.

Khadaroo, S. T. (2014) Denise Dunning goes to the causes of poverty, unleashing girl power to create positive change through Let Girls Lead.

Guiterrez, L. et al. (2000) Toward an understanding of (Em)Power(Ment) for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Adolescent Women.

Hargreaves, J. and Boler, T. (2006). Girl Power

Week #12: Women & Micro-Loans

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  • Women are one group of people that have for centuries been marginalized and treated as second-class citizens. Even the seemingly large advances in woman’s equality in the western world much of Africa sees large gaps in equality and a great deal of marginalization. The third MDG calls for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of woman in the developing world. Many of these places in Africa have traditional roles for women that are hard to change as “the inclusion of women in the development process often reasserts women’s position in unpaid work and the informal economy that rests on gendered assumptions of woman as carers and mothers”(Harman 90). These assumptions and cultural norms, that this is what women should do, is a problem that has continued to marginalize women’s job prospects in Africa. If these continue to hold true in many African nations the ability of their women to stop being marginalized becomes more difficult.hilfe,1737
  • To help achieve MDG goal #3 there must be a change in the approach of addressing the goal. At the current moment the structure of the MDGs means that some goals take priority over others gaining more funds. While the seemingly less important goals receive significantly less funds making it very difficult to have effective implementation which marginalizes the goals which receive less funding. “Woman need to be seen beyond issues of child birth, childrearing, and HIV/AIDS”(Harman 98) to truly have an effect on their marginalization. If we simply look to fix things women may encounter like childrearing and HIV we will never actually address the issue of inequality. One way to effectively achieve the goal is to have women be the focus of development for the nation and poverty alleviation. If women in these countries are given the proper tools to have successes they will thrive.
  • Namibia is one of the stronger economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, which helps it have a large job market. It also does marketable better than many other African nations when it comes to gender and women’s equality in the work place. If you’re a woman “living in Uganda, Namibia, Ghana or Nigeria you are three times more likely than your husband, son, or brother to run a business”(Easton FOURTUNE). Women in Namibia are lucky to have opportunities that many of their counterparts around Africa do not have.namibia_pol90
  • One way some have seen to improve the poor and women’s lives is through micro-loans and similar small individual loans. These loans give capital without asking for collateral, which allows the poorest of the poor to get a loan that would have been impossible before. Although I do not think these loans will by themselves be the answer to eradicating poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa they will help thousands of people and communities overcome their circumstances. Since women have been left out of many traditional avenues of employment in these countries before these micro-loans allow them to start small businesses escaping the barriers to employment. These loans allow self-sufficiency of women because they are no longer dependent on a male figures income but can make a living on their own.Namibia_women_in_culture
  • In Namibia the micro-loan industry has seen a boom as hundreds of these loan companies have opened making it one of the larger industries in the economy. Although it has been seen as a success by many, some concerns about the industry such as “demand that borrowers surrender banking cards and pin codes so that they can withdraw their cash first”(Villager) which is deemed illegal by the government. Some companies have had problems not following regulation, which has marred the image of the industry to some extent but with the wide number of institutions and the millions of dollars in micro-loans in the country it is safe to say Namibia has benefited from the use of micro-loans. To a large extent the micro-loans have been a big success, with some setbacks coming from lenders illegal practices and borrowers inability to repay loans, on the whole though these institutions have helped pull people out of poverty.

 

Hallward-Driemeier, M. Hasan, T., and Rusu, A.B. Women’s Legal Rights over 50 years – 55 pages; try to get the gist of the article

Kabeer, N. Conflicts over Credit: Re-Evaluating the Empowerment Potential of Loans in Women in Rural Bangladesh – 22 pages

Mayoux, L. Tackling the down side: Social Capital, Women’s Empowerment and Micro-Finance in Cameroon. – 30 pages

Chen, M., Sebstad, J. and O’Connell, L. Counting the invisible workforce: The case of homebased workers. – 8 pages

Week #11 Mobile Technology and Advancing Sub-Saharan Africa

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  • The thousands and millions of people around the world who suffer from poverty in many cases lack even the access to any sort of banking or financial intuitions. This is a important problem that needs to be addressed as one of the best ways for the poor around the world to start off on a stable financial future is being able to rely on and use types of banking and financial services. These “Poor households need financial tools to help them cushion against risk, build assets to secure their family’s future and manage daily household cash flows. Because of their precarious situation and unreliable income, the poor need financial services even more than the non-poor simply to survive from day to day” (Grameen Foundation). One group that sees such an importance in giving access and helping create solutions for the poorest peoples financial needs is Yunus Grameen’s Bank model. His model takes a twist on traditional banking and instead of using normal tactics they are implementing a number of strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa to help the region including mobile phone technology and allowing borrowing without collateral. The organization is also in implementing better health and agricultural technology and innovation to help these countries along with the aid in banking. In Ghana in particular they have implemented a mobile technology for community health, which has had a very positive impact on “sexual reproductive health to youth and information on farming techniques and weather reports to smallholder farmers”(Grameen Foundation). With the implementation of mobile phone technology it allows rural and poor populations access to previously unattainable information that is vital to their advancement. Ghana has benefited from mobile technology and will continue to do so in the future. In Kenya the Grameen Foundation has used mobile phone technology to provide a “microfinance institution that provides fully automated, mobile phone-based banking services, to expand its services to rural areas.”(Grameen Foundation). With this technology these rural areas can take advantage of market information when selling grain in the market and use the new banking services to help their family’s future stability.kiva_121x64 KIVA is another organization that is using mobile technology to help fight poverty and bring financial services to these poor people especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. “Kiva lets individuals lend as little as $25 to help create opportunity around the world”(KIVA). Even access to such small amounts of funds will have potentially large impacts in creating jobs and future wealth of the money lent. These two organizations are using mobile technology to bring financial services to people who have had now such access before.Dambisa_Moyo_Black_Presence_UK
  • Moyo discusses three interlinked stages to become aid independent. First “comes an economic plan which reduces a country’s reliance on aid year on year.”(Moyo 145). A country cannot simply go from receiving thousands and millions in aid then stop at the drop of a hat without taking steps beforehand. Second the country must change its habits to prevent itself from living beyond its means. If it can follow the financial rules and regulations that have been established on the global market the ability of the country to receive lending and investment is much greater. This also prevents corruption as these governments will no longer have money streaming in and if they take what is lent and spend it in an unethical way no one will lend again and the regime will fall. Third to accomplish the plan of Dead Aid is the strengthening of institutions in these countries. These are different from Sachs proposal because he doesn’t think the poor countries have been given nearly enough funds to even attack the problem of extreme poverty. While he would also call for improved accountability in institutions the whole basis of his philosophy is the rich need to give at least what pledge to even make a dent otherwise its like throwing a rock in a ocean doesn’t do much to fill it up. Extreme poverty abroad can be damaging to our nation as it can disrupt international financial markets by the government making money of one commodity while not helping its people. This undercuts the rest of the market while only helping the few elites financially in these poor countries. Poverty also hurts us because it allows dangerous regimes and lawlessness to take over like the problem with the Somalia pirates. They have no other means to make a living in their view so go to extremes to get what they can.
  • Herman Chinery-Hesse is not an advocate of much of the aid that Ghana gets because it takes away the potential for African companies like his to get any market share when NGOs and the like are willing to come in and do it for free. When these local businesses can’t compete because of NGOs or other aid development projects it does not allow the locals to prosper and expand business. No business will have success if someone will come in and undercut you by doing it for free. Also when large wealthy countries give aid even for infrastructure projects they try to get companies from their own countries to fulfill the project. While Andrew Mwenda has a different view on how aid should be dealt with in Africa. He believes that aid in medicine and such things do benefit the people they do not create wealth and that is the problem with aid where it is going. He does not think the aid is going to the places it should, he thinks it should go to the job creators in the countries. Small business owners and traders who can use these funds to grow their businesses and promote jobs and wealth creation in these poor areas. This is how aid can create sustainable wealth and pull these people out of the troubling situation they are in.

 

Dambisa Moyo Dead Aid                               Part II                                      pp. 126-154

Jeffrey Sachs The End of Poverty                   Chapters 17 & 18                     pp. 329-368

Week #9 Sachs & Moyo

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  • Sachs’s believes the problem with eradicating extreme poverty is the lack of rich countries giving the money they have pledged. Many try to claim that the amount of money needed is out of reach of possibility and with so many economic problems in the rich countries themselves, how is it possible to also help the nearly billion people in need. “Most important, the task can be achieved within the limits that the rich world has already committed: 0.7 percent of the gross national product of the high-income world, a mere 7 cents out of every $10 in income”(Sachs 288). According to Sachs if the rich countries followed their pledges then they would be able to achieve many of the MDGs goals most importantly the goal to eradicate extreme poverty. He also suggests targeting not only the rich nations themselves but by taxing the very richest people in these countries a higher rate that would go towards helping the poorest in the world. This he feels is a fair way to pay for the additional funds needed. I think in theory this method would be effective because you would be gaining the additional funds from the rich countries that would allow many of the poorest to be risen above poverty. Also this plan would not disadvantage those in rich countries that are not doing well financially it would put all of the burden on the wealthiest in the nations. While I think the plan would be effective if able to be put in place there are many barriers from allowing this. First these rich countries would need to be convinced to raise taxes on the wealthiest in the nation without taking any for domestic cash infusion the funds would go abroad to help eradicate extreme poverty. This would be difficult as in the US it is hard to raise taxes when it would benefit us convincing the public to raise taxes for helping those abroad seems unlikely. Also the problem with where the funds would be sent if they were taken from the wealthiest is if the funds would be watched to insure proper use or would it just be giving money away. While his plan would be effective if put in place as the amount of money donated would finally meet the pledges these countries promise the implementation has issues to work out.aidgraph
  • Sachs discusses possible outcomes by 2015 such as the rate of “extreme poverty will have declined from about 40 percent of the population today to under 20 percent”(Sachs 303). He had optimism that if the correct amount of aid was given so that extreme poverty began to become less and less it would also coincide with the lessening of aid needed. While the aid would be lessened it would open the door for direct foreign investment as the country could focus on advancing business interest rather than focusing on helping its extremely poor population. With this increase in investment it would also help quicken the countrys road to economic viability as the amount of jobs increase and standard of living also increase.Brazil1English
  • Extreme poverty in some regions of the world have decreased in particular in China and India where poverty has fallen a good amount and quality of life has increase substantially for much of the population. When looking at the total poverty numbers reduction they look good but when looking closer, certain regions such as Sub Saharan Africa the results are not as dramatic. While some countries have made progress others have not or their progress is much behind their Asian counterparts. In Namibia according to the World Bank in 2004 the poverty percent of population was 37.7% while in 2009(the most recent data) the poverty percent of population was 28.7%. While Namibia looks to be on track to meet the goal of 20% by 2015 they are not in the majority. Most countries have had less success than this when trying to meet the MDGs.
  • Sachs claims that people from rich countries claim that giving to Africa are hopeless because the money would go “right down the drain”(Sachs 309). With many pointing to Africa’s corrupt governments and lack of morals among other reasons why aid to Africa is hopeless and if the US and others actually gave the estimated $30 billion pledged the money would do no more good than line the pockets of the already rich in these countries while helping those in need very little. Sachs calls this a myth because ha says since we have actually never given anywhere near the amount needed claiming giving will hurt is wrong. I have heard what he calls myths and I don’t think they are to a certain extent. Trying to not address these issues by simply stating the fact that not enough money has been giving is not the correct path. While aid is important it must also be giving to the right people who will spend it correctly for true relief. For massive amounts of aid to work tracking the money is even more important as with such large numbers funds by corrupt governments can pocket a lot while spending as little as possible to really help.
  • When looking at the bad governance myth that Sachs talks about and looking past the corruption of past governments in Africa it is easy to see where rich country sentiments come from. If we are willing to think globally and not just think oh well in the past there was corruption there must be now we should be proactive in addressing countries where there are problems and support ones that already fight corruption. If those in the rich-world realized that helping these poor countries, although now may cost billions of dollars, that the future potential trade relationships and investment potential will be multiple times better after they are helped. We must continue to view the world as a global unite where we help those in need as at the end of the day we are also helping ourselves. If those in rich countries were more informed about individual countries and current African problems past prejudices could be thrown to the wayside as we help advance Africa out of poverty.

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  • While Moyo discusses the effect China has had on Africa in a positive light for most of the chapter including deep infrastructure development in many countries that have helped immensely. While Moyo doesn’t explicitly talk about her issues with China’s problems with governance and human rights at home she discusses the issues China’s no strings attached investment approach has had on Africa. Since China is willing to give loans and investment “offer of US$9 billion to rebuild the entire rail network nine billion dollars, no strings attached, and thus no reform required”(Moyo 108). The Chinese investors unlike the EIB do not care how the country they are investing in is run or what human rights issues are present if they see a way to improve financially from the investment or a Chinese firm gets the bid they do not care. This causes issues when others like the EIB and US wanting reform before investment because the countries will simply go to China where no reforms are required. China should see even with these short-term gains if they could get these countries to reform to be better places for foreign direct investment the potential future profits would outweigh the short-term profits they have created. Also some worry with no strings attached investment the Africans themselves are put on the back-burner to financial gain.

 

 

Dambisa Moyo Dead Aid                               Part II                                      pp. 98-125

Jeffrey Sachs The End of Poverty                   Chapters 15 & 16                     pp. 288-328

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Week #8 Poverty Reduction

  1. Sachs discusses in his book The End Of Poverty the use of poverty reduction plans should be implemented in developing countries as a way to achieve the MDGs. The “World Bank poverty reduction plan lays out the countries goals, targets, policies, and strategies to cut poverty. Introduced a few years ago to give more coherence to each country”(Sachs 270). If these plans can be implemented cost effectively they can have a big impact on the development of the region. Two countries that Sachs mentions who have implemented such poverty reduction programs are Ghana and Ethiopia. When looking at the plans at first glance it seems the Plan for Ghana is much more thought out with a more focused vision. Although the Ethiopian plan wants to achieve a similar goal of poverty reduction its direction is not as precise in its direction. The Ghana plan states its “Vision 2020 focused on human development, economic growth, rural development, urban development, infrastructure development, and an enabling environment”(IMF) giving more substance than the Ethiopian plan that says its goal is eradicating poverty and vaguely says it will try to increase reliable infrastructure. The two seem to focus on improving infrastructure to not only aid current business in the country but also have a strong system in place to attract foreign investment to the countries. Some of the things listed in the plans seem like valuable investments the countries should take to improve their economic situation but funding this programs to get them going is difficult. If the program is underfunded form the start it will not have as big of an effect as it would be struggling to survive, while not focusing on say improving the road infrastructure.BLog
  2. Moyo discusses in her book Dead Aid the idea of a “capital solution” in which the flows of aid to Africa could be replaced with market flows. This increase in business development and integration in international financial markets will bring the greatly desired prosperity and end of poverty, than the never-ending cycle of aid. When we evaluate the financial strategy of Sub-Saharan Africa we can see which countries are moving in the right direction to financial security not dependent on aid. Looking at Liberia will give us a snap shot of where they are financially and what areas they need to improve in. The credit rating in Liberia is 15 while in Botswana their credit rating is 72.5 showing a good amount of room for improvement. If they can get their credit rating into a better zone they will be able to use funds more effectively as a smaller deficit will be created with a better credit rating. Liberia owes in principal $568,400,000.00 in US dollars, with such large debt and mismanagement of funds in the past makes the implementation of new policies and governmental checks to fight corruption vital. While the EIB did not list Liberia as one of the countries they had helped they listed South Africa “The Republic of South Africa: Since its transition to a democratic government in 1994, the EU and the Republic of South Africa concluded the Trade, Cooperation and Development Agreement, in which the European Council has entrusted the EIB with four successive mandates for a total lending volume of EUR 2.4 billion.”(EIB). With such large investments in some countries like South Africa up to EUR 2.4 billion, they are willing to invest great sums of money but not to everyone who asks only to those they think will actually greatly benefit from it. According to the financials of Liberia they need to shift away from the reliance on aid while it may alleviate the immediate problems at hand it does not address the cause of the problems. If they can improve their financials even when they take aid they can put it to better use as they are not as constrained by immediate need but can put the money to long-term use.

Part: 2

Moyo talks about FDI (foreign direct investment) “and investment made to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating outside the economy of the investor”(Moyo 98) as crucial to really gain economic traction in Africa. While other regions of the world, such as East Asia, have been gaining more and more investment Africa has encountered problems attracting potential investment. With so much of Africa lacking adequate public infrastructure potential investors are wary of potential problems. With the increase expense in transport costs in the most of the continent Asia is still the affordable option for the manufacturing of goods even though the distance is further, especially in Europe. “Investors don’t know where to go or who to ask”(Moyo 100) when trying to find information even to learn about investment potential in a country. This creates the problem of a potential investor who could make a good deal in an African country miss an opportunity because the information is not readily available. Although foreign investment to Sub-Saharan Africa has increased in certain countries due to stable governments that instill confidence in investors there is big room for improvement since Sachs and Moyo wrote their books. Attracting foreign investment is impossible if the investor feels uncertain about the protections the government can provide and the stability of the region. They are unwilling to take great risk when other affordable options remain. In Liberia president Sirleaf has “granted more than a third of Liberia’s land to private investors to use for logging, mining and agro-industrial enterprises” (New York Times) showing signs of investment in certain industries. The issues in attracting more investment come down to investor confidence in the long-term stability in Liberia.

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Jeffery Sachs Thre End Of Poverty

Dambisa Moyo Dead Aid

Week #7 Aid To Africa

  1. African economies have seen the value in finding aid and funding to help advance their economies, this money does not always come from the traditional aid sources. Dambisa Moyo in her book Dead Aid she discusses the various issues involved with giving aid to Africa and possible changes to aid to benefit the people of Africa. Moyo discusses four alternative sources for funding African economies, which are, African governments should follow Asian emerging markets and take advantage of falling yields paid by sovereign borrowers. “Second, they should encourage the Chinese policy of large-scale direct investment in infrastructure”(Moyo). Third they should advocate for the genuine free trade in agricultural markets to allow Africa’s agricultural products to compete fairly on the global market. “Fourth, they should encourage financial intermediation”(Moyo). If these four steps can be achieved it will greatly increase the chance for African nations to truly rise above their current developing status. The problem is the implementation of these ideas while saying opening the global agricultural markets to free trade the idea of convincing countries like the US and Japan to stop subsidies seems far-fetched.Dambisa_Moyo_Black_Presence_UK
  2. In the history of aid the reasons for helping countries had little to do with helping their people but stopping the spread of certain political ideology. Two of the biggest givers of aid around the time of the cold war were the US and USSR. These two countries gave aid to stop the spread of the others political movements the US were willing to spend millions of dollars stopping the spread of communism. Their first large investment of aid was “the US funneled large sums to Europe through the Marshall Plan”(Moyo 13). They were committed to stop communism’s spread anywhere in the world as they gave money to war torn Europe, and later to areas in Africa and Asia that had struggling governments uncertain of their political futures the US tried to give aid to the side with more democratic ideology. I was surprised that aid started as a selfish means of control on the side of the developed countries.ciausaussr
  3. The Washington Consensus is a term coined by economist John Williamson that refers to a set of points that are said to help developing countries developed by Washington based organizations IMF, World Bank, and US Treasury. Their recommendations are prescriptions that developing countries can take to help their economic situation while attracting more foreign investment. Some critics have argued that some of the points in the Washington Consensus like opening markets to free trade are not allows the best way to instigate growth according to economists. Also if they follow the idea they should borrow little from foreign governments their ability to invest in infrastructure.
  4. Moyo’s website is a good insight into the woman behind the book Dead Aid. What stood out to me was the amount of areas she has an expertise or interest, it seems she is interested in all aspects of the economic system.fta
  5. When Moyo quotes a critic of the western aid model saying “my voice can’t compete with an electric guitar.”(Moyo 27) because the critic is saying rock stars and famous musicians overshadow an informed voice on the issue. When the critic and others speak who really understand and know the situation firs hand they are not listened to with much enthusiasm. When someone like Bono comes in and has a concert for a cause such as giving aid to Africa even when he knows very little on the issue his voice is heard and overshadows all others. When Rwanda’s president Kagame makes remarks about geopolitical rivalries when talking about how the US and USSR propped up regimes just because of their political beliefs without any real desire to develop these countries. If they had focus on helping truly develop these countries much of Africa would be much better off today than it is.
  6. Moyo describes many reasons why she thinks that aid is not working in Africa from historical to cultural reasons. She emphasizes the importance of not focusing only on some of the reasons aid is not working but looking at the whole picture to get a holistic view of the issue at hand. If we look at the history of aid in Africa and the effect it had on development since it was going towards propping up governments and not infrastructure and development. Along with the cultural issues in many countries as the boundaries were decided by imperial powers did not take into account cultural differences which can split a countries public. If we only focus on these two issues it may appear to not be any fault of the developing countries as others have disadvantaged them for years and years. The truth is even after these issues Africa has done little to help them allowing corrupt governments to use funds incorrectly. I think her argument is clear as to why aid is not working and the varies reasons needed to be taken into account to understand why.phoca_thumb_l_aid-trap
  7. Aid is seen as such an important part of the African landscape that it is hard to imagine an aid free Africa. Those who have been giving the aid don’t see anything but chaos coming from a reduction of aid. Moyo sees a different path for economic successes in the region with “better ways for Africa to finance its economic development; ways that have been tried and tested in places as far-flung as India, Russia and Chile”(Moyo 68). If these countries can find a way to take of the shackles of aid and find other forms of investment and growth for their nation it will foster confidence and improve foreign interest and investment. I think this method of avoiding aid can be beneficial to certain nations if they are ready to open up their markets and can survive without the aid. Some nations such as Liberia who are going through crisis because of Ebola, the aid they receive is vital to helping stop its spread and contain the damage of the virus. Moyo does not want all aid to stop merely the method of aid, which involves “throwing money” at the problem. Things such as food supplies and other physical aid items she believes still have value to the most in need while the monetary aid is being syphoned off to the countries elite. In Liberia “With enough support from outside, “we could see a good sign of improvement” during the next two months, Jeremiah Sulunteh told The Associated Press”(AP The Big Story) shows that without outside help the Ebola problem will become an epidemic.
  8. Some of Sach’s recommendations to escape the poverty trap include, improving food security, agricultural productivity, stop preventable disease, access to drinkable water, and investment in infrastructure. Some weaknesses in his argument for breaking the poverty trap are the implementation of his recommendations. With such corrupt governments in charge when aid is given it is hard to dictate where the money will be spent, usually it is spent in ineffective ways. While investment in infrastructure would help a nation rise above the poverty trap, convincing a foreign nation to put forward the initial investment can be hard when the developed nation is not gaining any advantage. Moyo would argue to get a nation out of the poverty trap the nation must find other ways to bring money into the nation by following the example of nations such as China. If Sach’s ideas can get the right investment and implementation they can be viable options but if this becomes difficult or impossible looking at solutions such as Moyo’s can be valuable.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dL19B32rxU         Dambisa Moyo Dead Aid                               Part I: The World of Aid 48-68 Jeffrey Sachs The End of Poverty                   Chapters 13    pp. 244-265 Edward Miguel Africa’s Turn? – Readings-MDG&Africa-Africa: (pdf) foreword, 1-49 Goretti Kyomuhendo Waiting: a novel of Uganda at War pp. 71-87