Week 6: Foreign Aid

  1. Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) and Common Humanitarian Action Plans (CHAP)
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A diagram of the humanitarian planning process. From Blogspot

From the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), the Consolidated Appeals Process, or CAP, can be used by aid organizations to plan, implement, and monitor their assistance given during crises. Its main focus is to help countries and organizations develop strategic responses and foster strong cooperation among all parties involved.

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The logo of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. From unocha.org.

At the foundation of Consolidated Appeals are Common Humanitarian Action Plans (CHAP). As the name suggests, these outline the humanitarian action given in a particular region or nation. Documented by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Zimbabwe has had 18 total appeals from 2005-2013; 14 of which were Consolidated Appeals and their corresponding mid-year reviews. There were a few special humanitarian response plans, however. In 2008, a Southern African Region Floods Preparedness and Response Plan was issued. Next in 2009, the Zimbabwe Cholera Outbreaks Coordinated Health and WASH Preparedness and Response Operational Plan was launched. The remaining two of the 18 appeals was a 2013 report of Zimbabwe’s Humanitarian Gap and its mid-year review.

  1. Gross National Income (GNI)
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Political map of Zimbabwe. From Ezilon Maps

As Investopedia explains, gross national income (GNI) is the sum of a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) plus its net income received from overseas, thus it measures national income received at home and abroad. According to the World Bank, Zimbabwe’s GNI was $860 US dollars as of 2013. Although this figure has been steadily improving for Zimbabwe, it still falls behind the Sub-Saharan average of $1,675.

  1. Official Development Assistance (ODA)
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The logo for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. From oecd.org

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) explains that the aid target of 0.7% of a nation’s gross national income (GNI) partitioned to official development assistance (ODA) has been continually re-endorsed by the international community at aid and development conferences. Thus, this is the pledge, the financial commitment, that Oxfam calls developed countries to meet.

Many countries have given ODA in Zimbabwe. In fact, the net ODA in 2013 was approximately $811 million USD. This is down from about $1 billion USD in 2012. The largest donor is the United Kingdom giving almost $2 million USD. The United States is the next largest at $165, with Global Fund following close behind. 33% of this development assistance is allocated to improving various social infrastructures and services; 26% to health and population; 18% to humanitarian aid. In order of largest to smallest distribution, education and production, multisector, program assistance, other and unallocated/unspecified, and economic infrastructure receive the remaining 23% of the aid.

  1. US Aid
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Pie chart of the United State’s federal budget. From Page 7 of Oxfam’s Foreign Aid 101

According to Oxfam, the United States gave approximately $30 and a half billion in the form of official development assistance (ODA) in 2012. While this seems like an incredibly large amount, this was only about 0.19% of the U.S.’s GNI. This falls quite short to the 0.7% urged by the international community. Foreign aid constitutes less than 1% of the federal budget.

In a downloadable spreadsheet, USAID outlines the major recipient countries and priority program areas. At the top of this list with over $2 billion in aid is Afghanistan. Pakistan follows with less than $1 billion, and Jordan receives about $477 million. The subsequent countries that make up the top ten are, in descending order, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya, Iraq, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, and Tanzania. Also, the five most-funded project initiatives include health (receiving nearly $5.5 billion), protection, assistance and solutions, infrastructure, agriculture, and good governance.

  1. Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
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An example of OECD’s commitment to PCD. This is the cover of a book on migration and developing countries. From oecd.org

As OECD explains, Policy Coherence for Development is a tool for integrating the many dimensions development, such as social, economic, governance, and environmental, into a sustainable, cohesive whole on both domestic and international levels. Thus, as the term indicates, it aspires to make foreign relations and transactions as coherent as possible.

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An image advocating for the Open Working Group proposal for Sustainable Development Goals. From the United Nations

This inclusive, sustainable focus reflects the agendas of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Desiring to increase the ease of international cooperation and improve the effectiveness of international development and aid are aspirations both have. Therein lies the two’s connection.

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